Most of the time your attorney will know which debts will be legally written off in your bankruptcy. But not always, for two reasons.
A couple of blogs ago I made the point that the discharge order entered on your behalf by the bankruptcy judge will write off all of your debts, EXCEPT for those types of debts which are on a list in Section 523 of the Bankruptcy Code. The most common ones on the list include:
a. most but not all taxes
b. debts incurred through fraud or misrepresentation, including recent cash advances and “luxury” purchases
c. debts which were not listed on the bankruptcy schedules on time
d. money owed because of embezzlement, larceny, or through other kinds of theft or fraud in a fiduciary relationship
e. child and spousal support
f. claims against you for intentional injury to another person or property
g. most but not all student loans
h. claims against you for causing injury or death to someone by driving while intoxicated (also applies to boating and flying)
These different types of debts each deserve a closer look, which I will do in upcoming blogs. But let’s go back to the question in today’s title. Most of the time your attorney can reliably tell you whether a particular debt will be discharged in your bankruptcy case. But sometimes he or she will not know because:
1. With some types of debts—the ones described in items b, d, and f of the list above—the debt is discharged unless that creditor raises an objection by a specific deadline (which is usually 60 days after your meeting with the trustee). If you are candid with your attorney about the facts at the beginning of your case, he or she can tell you if there is a risk that a particular creditor will object to the discharge of its debt. Your attorney may even be able to tell you roughly how much of a risk you have, depending on the facts, and sometimes on the reputation of that creditor to object under similar facts. But whether the risk is high or low, with these types of debts neither your attorney nor you will know for sure whether that debt will be discharged until either the creditor objects or the deadline for objection passes without objection.
2. With the other types of debts—the ones described in items a, c, e, g, and h of the list above—at the beginning of the case sometimes either the facts are not sufficiently clear or how the law should be applied to the facts is not clear, or both. You might think that the attorney should get all the necessary facts before filing the case. But sometimes the facts are simply not available, the additional work to get them is not worth the cost, or there is no time to do so because of the need to file the case quickly. Add in the consideration that the bankruptcy statutes often use broad language that can be and is in fact interpreted differently by different judges. As a result, in these situations there is simply no absolute way to know at the start of the case whether a particular debt will be discharged.
Take as an example one of the types of debt listed—a claim against you for causing personal injury to someone by driving while intoxicated. You might think that sounds relatively clear. But not necessarily. What if the accident occurred in a rural area so that the police did not arrive on the scene until well after accident, making unclear whether you were “intoxicated”? What if there wasn’t enough evidence for a criminal conviction but possibly enough for a civil verdict against you? What if the injured driver was also arguably intoxicated? Under these kinds of circumstances, the pertinent facts may not be known until a possible future trial. And even if the facts were clear, the law may not be settled about how to apply those facts to come to a decision. So you can see that in these “gray areas” your attorney may well not be able to tell you in advance whether that particular debt will be discharged.
I need to finish by emphasizing again that most situations are not gray but are black and white, or at least close to it. So usually your attorney CAN tell you with a high degree of confidence whether any particular debts will or will not be discharged. Indeed, in a large percentage of Chapter 7 cases all debts that you want will be discharged. And if you have debts that won’t be discharged—such as support obligations or recent income taxes—that will be quite clear. The point of this blog has been to explain why there are some situations when it is not so clear, when your attorney must make a judgment call based on the likelihood of an objection by a creditor, or based on imprecise facts and/or law.